Diabetes can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, and eye and foot problems. Prediabetes also can cause health problems. The good news is that type 2 diabetes can be delayed or even prevented. The longer you have diabetes, the more likely you are to develop health problems, so delaying diabetes by even a few years will benefit your health. You can help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by losing a modest amount of weight by following a reduced-calorie eating plan and being physically active most days of the week. Ask your doctor if you should take the diabetes drug metformin to help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.1
Exercise can also help people with type 2 diabetes avoid long-term complications, especially heart problems. People with diabetes are susceptible to developing blocked arteries (arteriosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack. Exercise helps keep your heart healthy and strong. Plus, exercise helps you maintain good cholesterol—and that helps you avoid arteriosclerosis.
There are two main tips I tell people to help control their type two diabetes. First of all, start the day with a breakfast with some complex carbohydrates AND some lean protein! Many people make the mistake of skipping breakfast or eating a higher sugar one which starts the day off on the wrong foot. Aim for complex carbohydrates such as oatmeal, fruit, whole grain toast or high fiber English muffins paired with lean protein such as peanut butter, eggs, or Greek yogurt.
More than half of the dialysis patients I see are type 2 diabetic – a few are type 1 (maybe 5 in a hundred) – it’s scary because when I see overweight people I think to myself if they don’t die first of heart disease they will be on dialysis. My advice now is to get our children outside playing and exercising – and watching their diets. Often fat kids grow up to be fat adults – AMEN – Peggy Harum RD, LD renal dietitian for more than 40 years
Diabetes mellitus or type-2 diabetes, is one of the major non-communicable and fastest growing public health problems in the world, is a condition difficult to treat and expensive to manage. It has been estimated that the number of diabetes sufferers in the world will double from the current value of about 190 million to 325 million during the next 25 years.[1,2,3] Individuals with type-2 diabetes are at a high risk of developing a range of debilitating complications such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, nephropathy, changes to the retina and blindness that can lead to disability and premature death. It also imposes important medical and economic burdens. Genetic susceptibility and environmental influences seem to be the most important factors responsible for the development of this condition. However, a drastic increase of physical inactivity, obesity, and type-2 diabetes has been recently observed. The fact indicates that obesity and physical inactivity may constitute the main reasons for the increasing burden of diabetes in the developed world.[4,5,6,7,8,9,10]
Other medications such as metformin or the DPP4 drug class are weight neutral. While this won’t make things worse, they won’t make things better either. Since weight loss is the key to reversing type 2 diabetes, medications won’t make things better. Medications make blood sugars better, but not the diabetes. We can pretend the disease is better, but that doesn’t make it true.
People are missing the forest through the trees while trying to be perfect in the way they eat. It has become difficult to accept the tip “eat more fruits and vegetables”. All the food “philosophers” (aka non-science based food guru) have filled our heads with lies about the types, packaging and serving of these foods. Saying things like “they are worthless if they are packaged in such-and-such a way”. STOP with the “all-prefect or nothing” mentality. Just eat fruits and vegetables! Canned, fresh, frozen, cooked, raw, or pulverized; just get them in your belly.
There’s more troubling news. The pre-cursors of Type 2 diabetes – pre-diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome – increase our risk of heart disease almost as much as Type 2 diabetes does. These pre-cursors are so widespread in 21st century America that scientists now estimate that the majority of the current U.S. population over the age of 65 has them. And they put people at dangerously high risk of developing full-blown Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and dying prematurely.
You may feel fine, but that is no guarantee that your blood sugar levels are in the target range. Remember, diabetic complications do not appear right away. And complications may develop even when the blood sugar is only slightly elevated. Regular blood sugar monitoring can help you keep your blood sugars in control and prevent serious damage to your eyes, kidneys and nerves. If your sugar levels are out of line, consult your doctor.
Jitahadi bought books on diabetes, nutrition, the glycemic index, and diabetes-friendly meals. Instead of slightly modifying her diet, Jitahadi decided to completely overhaul it. "I started realizing that what ['watch what you eat'] really meant was I needed to eat healthier, more balanced meals," she says. She wrote down everything she ate. And instead of dining out, she cooked meals from scratch. Jitahadi swapped white sugar for lower-glycemic sweeteners, traded in white rice for brown, lowered the amount of sodium she consumed, cut a lot of carbs, and made veggies the mainstay of each meal. (Her favorite: grated cauliflower sautéed with veggies and chicken or egg for low-carb fried "rice.")
Controlling Type II Diabetes by diet is an absolute must. Eating low glycemic foods and staying away from highly processed foods that contain hidden toxins as well as hidden sugars is important. You cannot always trust food labels so I suggest eating as many foods that DO NOT have labels – fresh vegetables, lean proteins and nutrient rich complex carbohydrates. Some examples include, spinach, kale, asparagus, broccoli, brussel sprouts, sweet potatoes, quinoa, brown rice or bean pastas – and of course lots of lean proteins from chicken, turkey and fish. Eliminate high sugar vegetables such as peas, carrots and corn and stay away from white foods such as white flour, bread, pastries, cakes, dairy and milk products (eggs are ok).
A few weeks ago, I made almond butter at home for the first time. I have always avoided purchasing almond butter at the grocery store because it can be so pricey. Whether you choose to make your own almond butter at home or to pick up a jar at the store, be sure check the nutrition label and the ingredients list for hidden additives. Check out this comparison of a few almond butter brands below. Kristie’s Honey Almond Butter… Continue reading »
The advice above is therefore not only illogical, but also works poorly. It completely lacks scientific support according to a Swedish expert investigation. On the contrary, in recent years similar carbohydrate-rich dietary advice has been shown to increase the risk of getting diabetes and worsen blood sugar levels long-term in people who are already diabetic. The advice doesn’t improve diabetics’ health in any other way either.
You don't have to live your life at the gym to reap the benefits of exercise. A brisk half-hour walk five days per week can be enough to help improve insulin sensitivity (the opposite of insulin resistance) and prevent diabetes. Also, just being generally more active can help a lot. To motivate yourself, get a pedometer to count your steps, and gradually increase the number of steps you are taking.
Including a variety of carbohydrate-containing foods is important; options can include whole grains (≥ 3 grams of fiber per serving), fruits, starchy vegetables and dairy. All meals should include a carbohydrate source, protein and a fruit or a vegetable to help stabilize blood glucose levels and meet an individual’s nutrient needs. An example may be grilled chicken, sweet potato and roasted asparagus.
Our advice to anyone trying to live healthier lifestyles is simple, including diabetics trying to manage their disease. Our mantra: Eat real food. What does that mean? Eat whole foods that grow from the ground, are picked from a bush or tree, or came from an animal. Whole vegetables, fruit (both preferably organic), and responsibly raised and fed animals are all a part of a healthy, nutrient-rich diet. If one can stick to this simple rule and minimize or avoid processed and packaged foods and food-like items, you’ll find you look, feel, and perform better than ever.
To avoid fast food, a convenient temptation, he prepped meals in advance. "A lot of it, especially as I lost a lot of weight, had to do with saying, 'I just walked x miles and burned x calories, do I really want to ruin it by popping in and having a burger?' " he says. "After a while, it got a little easier. Now I drive by [fast-food restaurants] and I don't even give them a second thought."
While diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar values, type 2 diabetes is also associated with a condition known as insulin resistance. Even though there is an element of impaired insulin secretion from the beta cells of the pancreas, especially when toxic levels of glucose occur (when blood sugars are constantly very high), the major defect in type 2 diabetes is the body's inability to respond properly to insulin.
Diabetes is a serious disease requiring professional medical attention. The information and recipes on this site, although as accurate and timely as feasibly possible, should not be considered as medical advice, nor as a substitute for the same. All recipes and menus are provided with the implied understanding that directions for exchange sizes will be strictly adhered to, and that blood glucose levels can be affected by not following individualized dietary guidelines as directed by your physician and/or healthcare team.
Smoking 16 to 20 cigarettes a day or more can increase a person's risk of developing diabetes to more than three times that of nonsmokers. The exact reason for this isn't well understood. It may be that smoking directly decreases the body's ability to utilize insulin. Moreover, it has been observed that after smoking, blood sugar levels increase. Finally, there is also an association between smoking and body fat distribution, smoking tends to encourage the "apple" shape, which is a risk factor for diabetes.
This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.
What is the best diet for gestational diabetes? This MNT Knowledge Center article covers what to eat and what to avoid for people with gestational diabetes. This article also gives an overview of gestational diabetes, including symptoms and how the condition occurs. You will learn which foods are safe to eat and which are not, as well as how to treat the condition. Read now
I recommend for my patients to eat a variety of foods when managing Diabetes Type 2 with diet. I particularly encourage patients to include protein from a variety of sources, fiber, and vegetables or fruit with each meal. Including small portions of many food groups with each meal ensures that patients’ bodies are being healthfully fueled and they will often feel more satisfied with their meals preventing overeating and grazing throughout the day.
5. Cut back on refined carbs and sugary drinks. White bread, white rice, white pasta and potatoes cause quick increases in blood sugar, as do sugary soft drinks, fruit punch, and fruit juice. Over time, eating lots of these refined carbohydrates and sugar may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. To lower your risk, switch to whole grains and skip the sugar — especially the sugary drinks.
Globally, T2DM is at present one of the most common diseases and its levels are progressively on the rise. It has been evaluated that around 366 million people worldwide or 8.3% in the age group of 20-79 years had T2DM in 2011. This figure is expected to rise to 552 million (9.9%) by 2030.10 This disease is associated with severe complications which affect patient’s health, productivity, and quality of life. More than 50% of people with diabetes die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (primarily heart disease and stroke) and is a sole cause of end stage renal disease which requires either dialysis or kidney transplantation. It is also a major cause of blindness due to retinal damage in adult age group referred to as diabetic retinopathy (DR). People with T2DM have an increased risk of lower limb amputation that may be 25 times greater than those without the disease. This disease caused around 4.6 million deaths in the age-group of 20-79 years in 2011.11
It had been about a year since Akua Jitahadi felt like herself. But she was 51 and expected menopause to kick in soon. Plus, she and her daughter had just moved to oppressively hot Arizona. So she brushed off the tired, sluggish feeling as a side effect of being a middle-aged woman adjusting to sweltering temps. And then, overnight, her vision dimmed. Something was most definitely wrong.
A growing body of evidence links moderate alcohol consumption with reduced risk of heart disease. The same may be true for type 2 diabetes. Moderate amounts of alcohol—up to a drink a day for women, up to two drinks a day for men—increases the efficiency of insulin at getting glucose inside cells. And some studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption decreases the risk of type 2 diabetes. (8, 46–51) If you already drink alcohol, the key is to keep your consumption in the moderate range, as higher amounts of alcohol could increase diabetes risk. (52) If you don’t drink alcohol, there’s no need to start—you can get the same benefits by losing weight, exercising more, and changing your eating patterns.
Regular physical activity helps the body cells take up glucose and thus lower blood glucose levels. Regular physical activity also helps with weight loss as well as controlling blood cholesterol and blood pressure. You need to let your doctor and dietitian know about the kinds of physical activities you do regularly. Your doctor and dietitian will help you balance your physical activity with your medication and diabetic meal plan. If you are not physically active now, your doctor may recommend that you increase physical activity. Important benefits of a regular aerobic exercise program in diabetes management include decreased need for insulin, decreased risk of obesity, and decreased risk for heart disease. Exercise decreases total cholesterol, improves the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and reduces blood triglycerides. It may also decrease blood pressure and lower stress levels. Walking is one of the easiest and healthiest ways to exercise. This is one activity that anyone can do for a lifetime without special equipment and with little risk of injury. Talk to your doctor about exercise. Supervised activity is best because of the risk of an insulin imbalance. Use the buddy system when you exercise.[71,72,73,74,75,76,77]
Interventional studies showed that high carbohydrate and high monounsaturated fat diets improve insulin sensitivity, whereas glucose disposal dietary measures comprise the first line intervention for control of dyslipidemia in diabetic patients.78 Several dietary interventional studies recommended nutrition therapy and lifestyle changes as the initial treatment for dyslipidemia.79,80 Metabolic control can be considered as the cornerstone in diabetes management and its complications. Acquiring HbA1c target minimizes the risk for developing microvascular complications and may also protect CVD, particularly in newly diagnosed patients.81 Carbohydrate intake has a direct effect on postprandial glucose levels in people with diabetes and is the principal macronutrient of worry in glycemic management.82 In addition, an individual’s food choices and energy balance have an effect on body weight, blood pressure, and lipid levels directly. Through the mutual efforts, health-care professionals can help their patients in achieving health goals by individualizing their nutrition interventions and continuing the support for changes.83-85 A study suggested that intake of virgin olive oil diet in the Mediterranean area has a beneficial effect on the reduction of progression of T2DM retinopathy.86 Dietary habits are essential elements of individual cardiovascular and metabolic risk.87 Numerous health benefits have been observed to the Mediterranean diet over the last decades, which contains abundant intake of fruit and vegetables. The beneficial effects of using fish and olive oil have been reported to be associated with improved glucose metabolism and decreased risk of T2DM, obesity and CVD.88
While there is still no cure for diabetes, there is good news; the progression from prediabetes to diabetes is not inevitable. The National Institutes of Health clinical trial, the Diabetes Prevention Program, found that for people with prediabetes modest lifestyle changes led to weight loss of 5 to 7 percent in participants and can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by 58% in individuals at high risk.
Aside from weight, certain nutrients are linked to improved health and lower diabetes risk. For example, increasing consumption of vegetables, fruits, and beans, eating more whole grains instead of refined, and choosing olive oil can all lower diabetes risk. Limiting sweets, refined carbohydrates such as white bread and pasta, and unhealthy fats from fried foods and fatty meats are examples of dietary patterns to slow any progression of prediabetes.
That proved more difficult than she had imagined. She hadn't seen a diabetes educator. The only dietitian covered by her insurer was too far away. And her doctor's sole advice was for Jitahadi to watch what she ate. "I was scared in the beginning," says Jitahadi. "It was through friends and starting to read [about diabetes] that I knew I could do this. I could get through this."
In general, prediabetes is not associated with any specific symptoms. However, there may be indicators of problems in blood sugar metabolism that can be seen years before the development of overt diabetes. Health-care professionals in the field of endocrinology are now routinely looking at these indicators in patients who are high risk for developing diabetes.
The COACH Program® provided by Diabetes Tasmania, is a free telephone coaching service for people at risk of or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. It provides people with the opportunity to work with a coach (health professional) to understand, manage and improve their health in particular around the risk factors associated with diabetes and its complications.
The breakfast should be 1/3 fruit, 1/3 starchy fiber foods (multigrain bread and cereal products), and 1/3 protein (nuts, eggs, tofu, beans, lentils, low-fat dairy products). The lunch and dinner plates should be 1/2 vegetables, 1/4 starchy fiber foods, and 1/4 protein. Choose whole grains, such as whole wheat pasta, whole wheat bread, and brown rice to increase fiber intake. Most of these are low in fat. Choose only lean meat and poultry.[81,82,83,84] Remove skin and trim fat before cooking (50-100 g or 2-4 oz). See the milk fat (MF) of all dairy products. Use skim or 1% milk products and low-fat cheese (less than 20% MF), or choose fortified soy products. Reduce your total fat intake (less than 25% - 35% of your daily calories). To achieve this, always try to choose low fat foods and avoid fried foods. Limit saturated and trans fats to less than 10% of your daily calories. Try to always choose unsaturated fats such as olive and canola oils and non-hydrogenated margarine (in moderation). Saturated and trans fats raise blood cholesterol levels, while unsaturated fats lower blood cholesterol. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and are usually of animal origin. They are found in meats, whole milk, dairy products, butter, and hard margarines.[85,86,87,88,89,90] Trans fats are found in baked and pre-packaged foods. Hydrogenation is a process that changes liquid vegetable oil into a solid fat such as hard margarine. The hydrogenation process changes some of the good fats into cholesterol-raising saturated and trans fats. People with diabetes are at a greater risk of developing or have already high levels of fats in their heart and blood vessels. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in cold water fish such as herring, mackerel, salmon, trout, sardines and tuna, and in flaxseeds (2 tbsp per day, freshly ground).[90,91,92,93] Three to four servings of fish per week is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Omega-enriched foods are also available in supermarkets such as omega-3 eggs and omega-3 enriched dairy products. Omega-3 supplements: Always look for the active ingredients DHA and EPA. Recommendations are 600-900 mg/day. Always check with your doctor or registered dietitian before taking any supplements. Increase fiber in your diet by eating more whole grain foods, vegetables, fruits, and legumes.[94,95,96] These foods also contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants and have a lower glycemic index. Low glycemic index foods will help to keep your blood sugar levels in the target range.[97,98,99]
Diabetes prevention is as basic as eating more healthfully, becoming more physically active and losing a few extra pounds. It's never too late to start. Making a few simple changes in your lifestyle now may help you avoid the serious health complications of diabetes down the road, such as nerve, kidney and heart damage. Consider the latest diabetes prevention tips from the American Diabetes Association.
Dr. Erica Oberg, ND, MPH, received a BA in anthropology from the University of Colorado, her doctorate of naturopathic medicine (ND) from Bastyr University, and a masters of public health (MPH) in health services research from the University of Washington. She completed her residency at the Bastyr Center for Natural Health in ambulatory primary care and fellowship training at the Health Promotion Research Center at the University of Washington.
#10. ALCOHOL—Moderate amounts of alcohol are linked with less type 2 diabetes. Don't go overboard—excess can raise your risk. In a review of published studies looking at more than 477,000 people, researchers found a moderate intake of alcohol was most protective against getting type 2 diabetes. That translates to about 1.5 drinks a day. Note: In the United States, one "standard" drink contains roughly 14 grams of pure alcohol, which is found in: 12 ounces of regular beer (typically 5% alcohol); 5 ounces of wine (about 12% alcohol) and 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits, which is about 40% alcohol. However, it's a good idea to get advice on alcohol intake from your doctor, who knows your personal health history. 12
If you’ve recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, pay special attention. Research on newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics coming to the Pritikin Longevity Center illustrate how profoundly beneficial early intervention can be. Scientists from UCLA followed 243 people in the early stages of diabetes (not yet on medications). Within three weeks of coming to Pritikin, their fasting blood sugar (glucose) plummeted on average from 160 to 124. Research has also found that the Pritikin Program reduces fasting insulin by 25 to 40%.
Carry a Rescue Snack: Going too long without eating can lead to dips in blood sugar, sometimes called “lows”, which create unpleasant symptoms, including ravenous hunger. This often leads to poor food choices, since we’re more focused on eating anything in sight, even if it’s not healthy. Rather than getting to this point, keep a healthy snack with you throughout the day in case you get stuck somewhere you didn’t plan at a mealtime. A balanced snack will combine a nutritious carb or veggie + source of protein or healthy fat.The chart below provides portable options you can mix and match to your tastes: